Demystifying CPT Codes 99143, 99144, and 99145: A Comprehensive Guide

The world of medical billing and coding can be complex and confusing, especially when it comes to understanding the nuances of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. In this article, we will delve into the specifics of CPT codes 99143, 99144, and 99145, shedding light on their definitions, usage, and the implications they hold for both healthcare providers and patients.

Understanding CPT Codes 99143, 99144, and 99145

CPT codes 99143, 99144, and 99145 are associated with moderate sedation services. These codes are used when the same physician or other qualified healthcare professional performing a diagnostic or therapeutic service also provides the sedation. The sedation supports the primary service and requires the presence of an independent trained observer to assist in monitoring the patient’s level of consciousness and physiological status.

Code 99143

CPT code 99143 is specifically designated for patients who are younger than 5 years of age and covers the initial 30 minutes of intra-service time. This code recognizes the unique considerations and potential challenges involved in administering moderate sedation to young children. Pediatric patients often require specialized care and attention, and the use of sedation can help alleviate their anxiety and discomfort during medical procedures.

By accurately documenting and billing for this service using code 99143, healthcare providers ensure that they receive appropriate reimbursement for the care provided to their youngest patients.

Code 99144

For patients aged 5 years or older, CPT code 99144 comes into play. Similar to code 99143, code 99144 covers the initial 30 minutes of intra-service time. It recognizes that moderate sedation services for older children, adolescents, and adult patients may require different considerations compared to younger children.

The use of sedation in these age groups can contribute to a more comfortable and tolerable experience during medical procedures, enabling healthcare providers to perform necessary diagnostic or therapeutic interventions effectively. By utilizing code 99144, healthcare providers can accurately report and bill for the provision of moderate sedation services for their older patients.

Code 99145

In situations where the duration of the intra-service time exceeds the initial 30 minutes, CPT code 99145 is employed. This code applies to each additional 15 minutes of intra-service time, regardless of the patient’s age. It recognizes that some medical procedures may require a longer duration of sedation due to their complexity or the specific needs of the patient.

By using code 99145, healthcare providers can appropriately capture and report the additional time spent providing moderate sedation services beyond the initial 30-minute timeframe. Accurate documentation and billing using code 99145 ensure that healthcare providers are reimbursed for the extended duration of care provided to their patients.

The Importance of Accurate Coding

Accurate coding is crucial in the healthcare industry. It ensures that healthcare providers are reimbursed correctly for their services, and it also helps in maintaining accurate patient records. However, it’s important to note that these codes have been deleted and replaced with codes 99151, 99152, and 99153. Using outdated codes can lead to services being denied, so it’s essential to keep up-to-date with the latest changes in CPT coding.

If you want to know more about EBUS CPT codes, click here.

Moderate Sedation in Healthcare

Moderate sedation plays a vital role in many healthcare procedures. It’s a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. This level of sedation is less intense than deep sedation or monitored anesthesia care, but more intense than minimal sedation. It’s often used during procedures that might be uncomfortable or distressing for patients, helping to alleviate anxiety and discomfort.

CPT Coding Guidelines

CPT coding guidelines have specific instructions for reporting these codes. For instance, practices are instructed not to report codes 99143 to 99145 in conjunction with codes listed in Appendix G of the CPT manual. This appendix lists procedures for which moderate sedation is an inherent part of the procedure itself. The National Correct Coding Initiative has established edits that bundle codes 99143 and 99144 into the procedures listed in Appendix G.

Time Measurement Changes

Time measurement changes to the moderate sedation codes can directly affect coding and billing. It’s crucial for physicians to document the length of intra-service time providing moderate sedation services. Without a time statement, these services are not billable because the coder cannot assume that the minimum time threshold of 16 minutes has been met.

Insurance Providers

Insurance providers, such as BCBS, have specific guidelines for the coverage of moderate sedation. These guidelines state that coverage is appropriate for patients undergoing surgical or endoscopic procedures when general, local, or regional anesthesia is not the more appropriate choice. These decisions are based on the patient’s medical condition, age, and the type of procedure.

Medical Necessity

The sedation service must be medically necessary for the management of the patient. Preliminary data analysis of claims submitted for these services indicates that CPT codes 99144–99145 are being billed with routine injection services and other minor procedures for which moderate sedation may not be “reasonable.”

Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, Section 1862(a)(1)(A), states “ No payment may be made under Part A or Part B for any expenses incurred for items or services which are not reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member.”

Trained Observers

The presence of an independent trained observer is a key requirement when billing for these codes. This observer, who could be a nurse, a physician assistant, or another qualified healthcare professional, is tasked with monitoring the patient’s level of consciousness and physiological status throughout the procedure. The observer’s presence is crucial in ensuring the safety and well-being of the patient during the procedure.

The Importance of Documentation

Documentation is a critical aspect of medical billing and coding. When billing for moderate sedation services, physicians must include a separate anesthesia note with a patient assessment, the method, and route of administration of conscious sedation, start and stop times, baseline vital signs, and vital signs every 5 to 15 minutes (depending on patient status), the identity of the trained observer (for CPT codes 99143–99145), method of monitoring heart rate, oxygen saturation (if any) and recovery time.

This documentation is essential for justifying the medical necessity of the service and for ensuring accurate billing and reimbursement.

Anesthesia Services

These services can range in complexity from local or topical anesthesia to general anesthesia. Moderate sedation falls somewhere in the middle of this spectrum. It’s a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. It does not include minimal sedation, deep sedation, or monitored anesthesia care.

Medicare in Reimbursement

Medicare has specific guidelines for the reimbursement of moderate sedation services. If the physician performing the procedure also provides moderate sedation for the procedure, payment may be made for conscious sedation consistent with CPT guidelines. However, if the physician performing the procedure provides local or minimal sedation for the procedure, no separate payment is made for the local or minimal sedation service.

Understanding the intricate billing and coding process for cardiopulmonary stress tests offers valuable knowledge for healthcare professionals, contributing to the overall comprehension of medical reimbursement.

The Impact on Patient Care

CPT codes not only impact the billing and reimbursement process, but they also have a direct impact on patient care. These codes help to standardize medical procedures and ensure that patients receive the appropriate level of care. They also play a crucial role in maintaining accurate patient records, which is essential for tracking a patient’s health history and making informed decisions about their future care.


In conclusion, understanding CPT codes 99143, 99144, and 99145 is crucial for healthcare providers, medical coders, and patients alike. These codes play a significant role in the billing and reimbursement process, and they also have a direct impact on the quality and level of care that patients receive.

By staying up-to-date with the latest changes in CPT coding and adhering to the specific guidelines for reporting these codes, healthcare providers can ensure accurate billing, appropriate reimbursement, and high-quality patient care.